The Congressional Research Service (CRS) has published a report entitled Ukrainian Military Performance and Outlook. This is a previously published report that has been updated and released on November 3, 2022. (PDF, 2 pages).
The report covers four major topics: personnel, equipment, the role of U.S. and Western security assistance, and the current Ukrainian military performance and outlook. A brief summary of each section is found below:
Personnel. Part of the Ukrainian Armed Forces (UAF) impressive performance is due to the experience and motivation of its personnel. The UAF personnel gained important combat experience since the initial invasion of Ukraine by Russia in 2014. A significant number of people served between 2014 and 2022, were well-trained, and easily integrated into the combat formations upon mobilization in 2022. However, a high level of combat casualties and small recruitment base (as compared to Russia) are limiting factors.
Equipment. The UAF has suffered some significant equipment losses. Combat losses and maintenance issues have caused a shortage of mechanized or motorized vehicle support. Western security assistance has mitigated some of these shortages, as has Ukrainian resilience in repairing equipment. Russian equipment losses have helped offset the UAF combat losses in equipment as well.
Western Security Assistance. The United States has provided more than $18 billion in security assistance. European allies are major contributors to military equipment to the UAF as well. Training for the UAF in the form of basic infantry skills, unit-level development, and operation of military equipment has been an important factor in the UAF performance on the battlefield.
UAF Performance – Now and Future. The Ukrainian military forces have regained the momentum from Russian forces. It has conducted offensives and retook territory in the Kharkiv, Luhansk, and Kherson regions. Its continued success against the Russians will depend greatly on the constant flow of Western equipment and material as well as training and intelligence support.
Ukrainian Military Performance and Outlook, Congressional Research Service (CRS), November 3, 2022, PDF, 2 pages.